Weiterführende biografische Spuren und Beispiele von György Mayer auf comartgraz:
György Mayer, Fotograf, Pest, Zagreb, Graz, um 1865, an Tisch sitzende Dame in schwarzer Krinoline, Wohnzimmer Studiogrund https://comartgraz.wordpress.com/2015/08/20/gyorgy-mayer-fotograf-pest-zagreb-graz-um-1865-an-tisch-sitzende-dame-in-schwarzer-krinoline-wohnzimmer-studiogrund/
György Mayer, Fotograf, Pest, Zagreb, Graz, um 1864, stehender Herr, Säule, Balustrade, gemalter Park Studiogrund https://comartgraz.wordpress.com/2015/08/18/gyorgy-mayer-fotograf-pest-zagreb-graz-um-1864-stehender-herr-saule-balustrade-gemalter-park-studiogrund/
György Mayer, Fotograf, Pest, Zagreb, Graz, um 1865, drei Herren um Podest, Schauspieler, monochromer Studiogrund https://comartgraz.wordpress.com/2015/08/19/gyorgy-mayer-fotograf-pest-zagreb-graz-um-1865-drei-herren-um-podest-schauspieler-monochromer-studiogrund/
György Mayer, Photograph, Budapest, um 1860, Baron Simon Revay, Turoczi magyar foispan, sucht seine Geschichte – bitte, ohne Zensur
György Mayer, Photograph, Budapest, um 1860, Graf Gustav Teleki, sucht seine Geschichte – bitte, ohne Zensur
György Mayer, Photograph, Budapest, um 1860, Graf Menyhert Lonyay, sucht seine Geschichte – bitte, ohne Zensur
György Mayer, Photograph, Budapest 1860, Graf Zsigmond Batthyany, sucht sucht seine Geschichte – bitte, ohne Zensur
György Mayer, Photograph, Budapest um 1860, Graf Jozsef Palffy, sucht seine Geschichte – bitte, ohne Zensur
György Mayer, Budapest, um 1860, Graf Kalman Tisza, sucht seine Geschichte – bitte, ohne Zensur
György Mayer, Photograph, Budapest, um 1860, Graf Mano Andrassy, sucht seine Geschichte – bitte, ohne Zensur
György Mayer, Photograph, Budapest, um 1865, Baron Miklos Vay, sucht seine Geschichte – bitte ohne Zensur
György Mayer, Budapest, um 1865, Graf Geza Szapary, sucht seine Geschichte – bitte, ohne Zensur
György Mayer, Photograph, Budapest, um 1860, Graf Jenö Zichy, sucht seine Geschichte – bitte, ohne Zensur
György Mayer, Photograph, Budapest, um 1865, Graf György Festetics, sucht seine Geschichte – bitte, ohne Zensur
György Mayer, Photograph, Budapest, um 1865, Graf Aladar Andrassy, sucht seine Geschichte – bitte, ohne Zensur
(German pronunciation: [ˈɡʁaːt͡s]; Slovene: Gradec),
formerly known as Gratz,
is the capital of Styria and second-largest city in Austria after Vienna. On 1 January 2015 it had a population of 309,323 (of which 276,526 had principal residence status). In 2014 the population of the Graz Larger Urban Zone who had principal residence status stood at 605,143.
Graz has a long tradition as a student city: its six universities have more than 44,000 students. Its “Old Town” is one of the best-preserved city centres in Central Europe.
Politically and culturally, Graz was for centuries more important for Slovenes than Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, and still remains influential.
In 1999, Graz was added to the UNESCO list of World Cultural Heritage Sites, and the site was extended in 2010 by Schloss Eggenberg. Graz was sole Cultural Capital of Europe for 2003 and got the title of a City of Culinary Delights in 2008.
The name of the city, Graz (see the Slavic settlement Grad), and some archaeological finds point to the erection of a small castle by Alpine Slavic people, which in time became a heavily defended fortification.
In literary Slovene, gradec literally means “small castle”, which is etymologically a hypocoristic derivative of Proto-West-South Slavic *gradьcъ, itself by means of liquid metathesis descending from Common Slavic *gardьcъ, by Slavic third palatalisation from Proto-Slavic *gardiku (cf. Ancient Greek toponym Γαρδίκι) originally denoting “small town, settlement”.
The name thus follows the common South Slavic pattern for naming settlements as grad.
The German name ‘Graz’ was first used in 1128.
GRATZ, or Graz,1
the capital of the Austrian crownland of Styria, is situated in the broad and fertile valley of the Mur, and the beauty of its position has given rise to the punning French description, La ville des Graces sur la riviere de rAmotir. From Vienna it is distant about 90 miles as the crow flies, and about 139 miles by rail. Its latitude is 47 49 N., its longitude 15 27 E., and its height above the sea 1499 feet. The main town lies on the left bank of the river, at the foot of the Schlossberg or castle-hill, but two of the principal suburbs, Lend and Gries, occupy an extensive area on the right bank, and communication is maintained by four bridges besides the railway bridge. Among the numerous churches of the city the most im portant is the Gothic cathedral of St yEgidius, founded by the emperor Frederick III. in 1450-1462, on the site of a previous church mentioned as early as 1157. It has been several times modified and redecorated, more particularly
1 The name was frequently written Gratz, Gretz, or Grez, but in 1843 it was decided, through the influence mainly of Hammer-Purgstall, that the official form should be Graz, in accordance at once with the local pronunciation and the derivation of the word, which was originally, it is believed,
the Slavonic for “little castle,”
Gradats or Gratsa in Servian,
and Hradek in Bohemian in 1718.
The present copper spire dates from 1663.
The interior, which measures 200 feet in length by 92 feet in breadth, is richly adorned with stained glass win dows of modern date, costly shrines, paintings, and tombs. In the immediate neighbourhood of the cathedral is the mausoleum church of St Catherine’s, erected by Ferdinand II. as a burial-place for himself and his family. It has an imposing façade with Corinthian columns, two cupolas, and a tower. Worthy of mention also are the church of the Sacred Blood, which has been the municipal church since 1585, and which possesses an altar-piece by Tintoretto; the Augustinian church, commonly called Stiegenkirche, appropriated to the service of the university since 1827; and the church of St Anthony of Padua, connected with the lunatic asylum, and popularly known as the Narrenthurmkirche. Besides the old imperial castle, formerly the residence of the Styrian princes, and now the seat of the statthalterei, Gratz contains the palace of the prince-bishop of Seckau, the palace of Count Attem, with a fine picture-gallery, and the old palace of the archduke John, now in
[ Plan of Gratz. ]
possession of the counts of Meran. The landhaus, where the estates hold their sittings, was erected in the 16th century; among its curiosities are the Styrian hat and the great silver cup called the Landschadenbund. The rathhaus, built by Stadler between 1802 and 1807, is of interest mainly for its collection of instruments of torture. At the head of the educational institutions is the university, founded in 1586 by Charles Francis, and restored in 1817 after an interruption of forty-five years. The old buildings dating from between 1573 and 1609 are being replaced by a fine modern erection. Of greater celebrity than the university is the Joanneum, originally instituted in 1811 by the archduke John Baptist as a national museum, but now developed into a complex organization for the higher education, with a regular professorate, a library of 50,000 volumes, archives peculiarly rich in Oriental MSS., a botanical garden, and other auxiliary departments. Mohs, Schrotten, and Unger are among the eminent names asso ciated with its chairs. The Styrian hospital, founded in 1788, the town hospital, the civic hospital, the military hospital, the children’s hospital, and the lunatic asylum are among the principal benevolent institutions. An official money-lending establishment has been in existence since 1755. Of the minor institutions of various kinds which prove the prosperity of the town the list would be a long one. An active trade, fostered by abundant railway communication both with north and south, is combined with no small manufacturing industry in the departments of iron and steel wares, paper, chemicals, sugar, vinegar, liqueurs, watches, and mathematical instruments. Few towns are better supplied with public pleasure grounds and holiday resorts. The Schlossberg, which rises 380 feet above the valley, was laid out by General Welden shortly after the destruction of the castle; and a great park of 42 acres has been made almost to encompass the inner city. The Calvarienberg lies in the north-west of the town; and not far off is the castle of Eggenberg. The population of Gratz, in spite of a high rate of mortality which prevailed for some time, amounted in 1869 to 81,119, exclusive of the garrison of 4000 men. In 1875 the total, civil and military, was estimated at 90,000.
History.—Gratz may possibly have been a Roman site, but the first mention of it under its present name is in a document of 881 A.D. Ottocar V. of Traungau chose it as his residence in 1056, and in 1163 it is designated for the first time the Landesfürstliche Stadt. Its privileges were confirmed by King Rudolf in 1281. Surrounded with walls and fosses in 1435, it was able in 1481 to de fend itself against the Hungarians under Matthias Corvinus, who attempted to get possession of his promised bride at refuge within. In 1529 and 1532 the Turks attacked it with as little success. As early as 1530 the Lutheran doctrine was preached in Gratz by Seifried and Jacob von Eggenberg, and in 1540 Eggenberg founded the Paradies or Lutheran school in which Kepler afterwards taught. But Charles II. burned 20,000 Protestant books in the square of the present lunatic asylum, and succeeded by his oppres sive measures in bringing the city again under the authority of Rome. New fortifications were constructed in the end of the 16th century by Franz von Poppendorf, and in 1644 the town afforded an asylum to the family of Ferdinand III. The French were in possession of the place in 1797 and again in 1805 ; and in 1809 Marshal Macdonald, having in terms of the peace of Vienna entered the citadel which he had vainly besieged, blew it all up with the exception of the bell-tower and the citizens’ or clock tower.
See Bentlitsch, Thopographische Kunde der Hauptstadt Grätz, Grätz, 1808; Polsterer, Gräz und seine Umgebungen, Grätz, 1827; Baldauf, Geschichte der merk würdigsten Begebenheiten in Grätz, Grätz, 1843; Schreiner, Histor.-statist.-topogr. Gemälde der Stadt Gratz und seine Ummgebung, Grätz, 1843; Weidmann, Illust. Fremdenfuhrer durch Grätz, 1856; Ilwof and Peters, Graz: Geschichte und Topo graphie, Grätz, 1876
(Burgstädte, Gard bzw. Grad)
pl. gród, oder gard der auf das Kentumsprachewort g’herdh-
(altnordisch garðr, walisisch -gardd; dänisch -gaard; ähnlich wie bei Burg Stargard, Białogard)
zurückgeht – sind eine charakteristische Form des Mittelalters im östlichen Mitteleuropa. Sie haben innerhalb von slawischen Siedlungskammern eine zentralörtliche Funktion, sind jedoch kein zwingendes ethnisches Kennzeichen, denn sie verdanken ihre Entstehung bestimmten Gesellschaftsstrukturen, die auch bei germanischen Völkern anzutreffen sind.
Deutsch: slawische Inselburg aus dem 10./12. Jahrhundert, 2006.
Ungefähr 3000 Anlagen sind bekannt, davon rund 2000 in Polen, rund 700 in Deutschland (etwa östlich der Elb-Saale-Linie; vgl. Germania Slavica) und rund 300 in Böhmen, Mähren und der Slowakei.
Deutsch: Archäologisches Freilichtmuseum Groß Raden, rekonstruierte Hauptburg mit Zugangsbrücke.
Mag. Ingrid Moschik,